G-Word Definitions

gabardine. worsted twill
gabbro. coarse-grained igneous, calcic plagioclase and pyroxene
gabelle. 1790 tax on salt
gabion. cylindrical wicker basket filled with earth and stone to build fortifications, dams.
gad. rock-breaking tool; cattle prod ("Egad! He gaffed me with a gad!")
gadoid. cod and hake ("I could hake a gadoid.")
gadolinite. rare-earth mineral
gadroon. ornamental band or molding, convex, continuous pattern
gadwall. a duck
Gael. Scotch, Irish, or Isle of Man
gaff. gaff hook; spar used to extend top edge of fore-and-aft sail; gamecock’s spur; lineman’s climbing hook; hoax; harsh abuse (the gaff sail).
gaffer. old man; TV lighting technician
gaff rig. fore-and-aft sail with upper edge supported by a gaff
gaff-top-sail .a light triangular or quadrangular sail set over a gaff
gahnite. mineral - ("Oh, man! He's a gahnite!")
gailardia. flower
gainly. handsome, graceful - (as in ungainly)
galactopoiesis. continued production of milk
galactosemia hereditary: mental retardation and cataracts (milk in the blood)
galago. large round eyes, prominent ears big teeth and long tail
galengal. pungent, aromatic roots
galantine. stuffed meat served cold with aspic - ("We ate our galantine at the gala galanty show.")
galanty show. shadow show
galatea. durable cloth, often striped
Galatea. ivory statue brought to life by Aphrodite upon pleas from Pygmalion - ("Galatea wore galatea.")
galax. evergreen
galbanum. gum used for incense and counterirritant
gale. 32 to 63 mph.
gale. helmet-shaped part (culm)
galeate. helmet-shaped
Galician. Spanish Galetia
galilee. small chapel or porch at western end of some medieval English churches
galimatis. gibberish ("He was gibbering galimatis and gammon.")
galipot. crude pine turpentine (A gallipot of galipot.)
gall. abrasively-induced skin sore
Galla. southern Ethiopia and Somali
galleass. large, heavily armed three-master Mediterranean 16th, 17th C.
galleon. three-master, two or more decks, 15th, 16th C.
galley. long tray holding composed type
galliard. spirited, lively, gay
Gallicanism. restriction of papal control, national semi-autonomy
galligaskins. loose (hose and) breeches
gallimaufry.  salmagundi
gallinaceous .domestic fowl
gallinipper. large mosquito capable of inflicting painful bite ("gall-nipper')
gallinule. wading bird
gallipot. small glazed earthenware jar used by druggists
galliwasp. lizard
Galomania. frenchophile
galloon. band or braid made of lace, metallic thread, or embroidery
gallowglass. armed Irish mercenary ("From the Western Isles, with kerns and gallowglasses is supplied" - MacBeth).
galop, galopade. lively dance ("We galoped through a galliard.")
galyak. soft glossy fur from stillborn lamb or kid ("The gal likes to yak.")
gam. socialization between whaler
gambado. low horse leap with all four feet off ground
gambado. rider’s leggings
gambier. resinous, astringent extract (tanning and dyeing) (currier)
gamboge. strong yellow, golden yellow resin
gambusia. top minnows feeding on mosquito larvae
gamelan. S. E. Asia: tuned metal/wooden chine instruments (Javanese)
gametangium. organ or cell in which gametes are produced
gamic. sexual: requiring fertilization
gamin. neglected boy, urchin
gamine. neglected girl; impish appeal
gammer. elderly woman ("gaffer and gammer")
gammon. backgammon victory
gammon. nonsense (galimatis).
gammon. cured or smoked ham ("How about a gammon ham sandwich?")
gammon. to fasten (a bowsprit) to the stem of a ship
gamogenesis. Sexual reproduction - Gr.: gamo, (together).
gamopetalous. petals partially fused
gamophilous. united leaves
gamosepalous. sepals partly united
gamp. large, baggy umbrella ("A damp gamp")
ganef., ganof., gonif. scoundrel, thief (Yiddish)
gang., gangue. worthless rock under which valuable minerals are found
gangrel. vagabond ("A gang of gangrels.").
ganister. used for refractory furnace linings
ganja. resinous form of marijuana
ganoid. sturgeon and gar
gantlet. two railroad tracks overlapped in a narrow defile ("run the gantlet")
gantline. rope through a block at a mast top for hoisting
gantry. support for barrel on its side; traveling crane gantry
Gantt chart. for comparing production rates
Ganymede. a Trojan boy of great beauty whom Zeus abducted to be cupbearer to the gods
gar. to cause or compel
garbanzo. chickpea seed
garboard. first strake of planks laid next to a ship’s keel
garboil. confusion, uproar
garderobe. wardrobe, private chamber
Gareth. King Arthur’s nephew
gargeney. Old World duck with conspicuously striped head
Gargantua. a giant king noted for his prodigious physical and intellectual appetites
garget. mastitis of domestic animals
garibaldi. loose high-necked blouse patterned after the Red Shirts
garnierite. apple-green nickel ore
garniture. garnish
garrison cap.  soft cloth military cap without a visor
Garrison finish. winner comes from behind at last minute
garrote. iron collar screwed tight
garth. grassy quadrangle surrounded by cloisters
gasconade. boastfulness, rodomontade
gasiform. gaseous
gaskin. hind leg of horse between stifle (knee) and hock (tarsal joint of hind leg)
gas plant. Eurasia, emits a gas capable of being ignited
gasser. well yielding natural gas
gast. to frighten ("It was so gastly, I was aghast.")
gastronome. Epicurean
gastrula. follows blastula
gat. inland channel ("He descended the gat to the ghat.")
gaum. smudge or smear (shmutz.)
gaur. Asiatic bovine (See also "gayal")
gavage. tube-feeding (lavage)
gavelkind. equal estate to all the heirs ("per stirpes")
gavel-to-gavel From start-to-finish
gavial. S. Asia: like a crocodile
gavotte. French peasant dance like minuet
gayal. large bovine Burmese mammal, tufted tail (See also "gaur")
gazebo. belvedere
gazpacho. chilled soup: tomatoes, onion, green pepper, and herbs
geanticline. large upward fold
geek. bites head off chicken
gefilte fish. chopped fish, crumbs, eggs, seasoning, cooked in broth, served cold in cakes
gelandesprung. skiing jump from crouch using both poles
geld. Norman the Conqueror's tax on the English landholders
gelid. very cold
gelignite. guncotton, nitroglycerine, wood pulp, potassium nitrate
gelt. money (Yiddish)
Gemara. 2nd part of Talmud, commentary on the Mishnah
geminate. to arrange in pairs or double
gentian. blue flowers; yellow gentian rhizome and roots used as tonic
gentian violet. stain
gentlemen-at-arms. honor guard of 40 nobleman who attend the British sovereign
gentle breeze. between 8 and 12 mph.
gentrification. upper-class property restoration of working class homes
genus. below family, above species
geocorona. outermost mantle of Earth’s atmosphere
geoduck. very large edible clam
geognosy. study of the organization and structure of the Earth ("geo-gnosy")
geoid. surface of the Earth corresponding to mean sea level
geomancy. divination by means of lines and figures
geometric mean. the nth root of a product of n factors
geometrid. moth
geomorphology. study of evolution of landforms
geophagy. eating clay
geophyte. plant propagating by underground buds
Geordie. a guinea
George. jeweled figure of St. George killing the dragon (Knights of the Garter); English coin (Henry VIII) with a picture of St. George and the dragon
georgic. pertaining to agriculture and rural life; a pastoral poem
geostrophic. force (like Coriolis) caused by Earth’s rotation
geosyncline. depression in Earth’s crust where a lot has been deposited
geotaxis. movement in response to gravity
geotropism. same thing relating to growth
gerah. ancient Hebrew coin and weight unit
Geraint. Knight of the Round Table, Enid’s hubby
gerent. ruler or manager
gerenuk. African gazelle
germander. reddish-purple flowers
gerund. a form such as cooking that functions as a noun
gerundive. The future passive participle that functions adjectivally and expresses the notion of fitness or necessity; a verbal adjective
Garyon. winged monster with three bodies slain by Hercules
gesso. plaster of Paris and glue used for low relief and painting ("A gluey gob of gesso.")
geste. a notable feat or exploit
gestate. carry within the uterus before birth
gestic. movement of the body (dance) 
geyserite. opaline siliceous geyser deposit
ghat. broad flight of steps down the bank of a river
ghazi. Moslem warrior who has fought the infidel
ghee. semi-fluid butter (India)
Ghibbeline. aristocrats who fought during Middle Ages for German control of Italy
ghillie. a low-cut sports shoe with fringed laces
giaour. non-believer, esp., Christian: an infidel
gib. machining: a wedge-shaped piece holding a part in place, or a bearing surface
gibberelic acid.  promotes plant growth
gid. ovine disease caused by tapeworm larva
gigot. leg of mutton
gigue. jig; lively dance
Gilgamesh. Sumerian: semi-divine king of Erech and hero. Includes tale of flood
gill. half-glass
gill. a narrow stream
gilt . a young sow that has not farrowed
gillie. a professional guide for hunting
gill net. vertical net that catches fish by the gills
gillyflower. carnation
gimmal. a ring made of two interlocked strips
gimp. a narrow stiffened braid
gimp. limper
gimp. spirit
gink. man or boy
girandole. radiating display/ rotating fireworks; branched candleholder, backed by mirror
girasol. fire opal
gird. jeer
Gironde. moderate Republican party of revolutionary France
gisarme. long-shafted halberd with two-edged axe carried by a medieval foot soldier
glabella. smooth area between eyebrows just above nose (glabrous)
glacis. gentle slope; slope leading down form a fortification
gladiate. sword-shaped
Gladstone. four-wheeled light convertible carriage (driver and footman)
glair. raw egg whites used in glazing
glaive. sword, broadsword
glanders. equine disease
glans. glans penis, glans clitoris (head or tip)
glassine. nearly transparent gazed paper
glass snake. tail breaks off easily
Glauber’s salt. sodium sulfate, used as cathartic and in paper making
glauconite.. found in greensand and used as water softener, fertilizer
glazier. window glass
gleba. inside of a puffball
glebe. plot of land granted to a clergyman while in office
glede. the kite
gleed. glowing coal, ember
gleet. chronic urethral inflammation
gleg. alert and quick to respond
Glengarry. woolen cap, creased lengthwise with ribbons at back
gley. sticky bluish-gray soil layer formed by excessive moisture
gliadin. proteins derived from wheat or rye gluten
gimp. narrow braid or cord of fabric (sometimes stiffened)
glissade. gliding ballet step; controlled slide
glissando. rapid scale
glochidium. parasitic mussel larvae
glogg. wine, brandy, and sherry, with raisins, almonds and orange peel
glomerute. compact flower cluster
glomerulus. tuft of capillaries at kidney origin; twisted secretory portion of sweat gland
Gloria in Excelsis Deo. Latin doxology forming part of Ordinary of the Mass
gloriole. halo, aureole, or numbus
glory of the snow. flower
gloss. brief explanatory note in margin or between lines of text
glossal. pertaining to the tongue
glossography. compilation of glossaries
glost. a lead glaze used for pottery
gloxinia. house plant
gloze. to minimize, gloss over
glucagon. a pancreatic hormone that raises blood sugar
glume. chaffy basal bract on the spikelet of grass
gluon. massless, neutral particle that mediates the strong force
glutaraldehyd.e. used for tanning leather
gluteus. any of the three large muscles of the buttoks
glyph. vertical groove in a Doric column; symbolic figure (road sign silhouette)
glyptics. art of engraving or carving
glyptograph. engraving upon precious stone
gnar. growl, snarl
gnarl. snarl
gnathic. relating to the jaw
gnathite. insect jaw
gneiss. banded or foliated metamorphic rock, like granite, layered
gnocchi. dumplings made of semolina or potato served with grated cheese and sauces
gnome. aphorism
gnomic. aphoristic
gnomon. sundial stylus; figure left after a small parallelogram has been removed from a large parallelogram with which it shared a common corner
gnosis. intuitive apprehension of spiritual truths: spiritualism
goa. gazelle
goat’s rue. flower
goatsucker. nighthawk and whippoorwill
Gobelin. tapestry from the Paris Gobelin works. richly pictorial
goby. fish
godevil. logging sled; railroad handcar; jointed tool for pipeline cleaning, explosive
God’s acre. churchyard
godwit. wading bird
goethite iron ore
goffer. to press ridges or pleats; tool; pleated ornamentation
Goidetic. branch of Celtic language
goldbeater’s skin. treated animal membrane used to separate gold being beaten into leaf
gold bug. North American beetle
golden Alexanders. flower
golden club. aquatic plant
golden eagle. eagle
golden eye. duck
golden section 5:3
gold-of-pleasure. plant rich in oil
goldstone. adventurine with gold-colored inclusions
goldthread. golden roots
golem. artificial human endowed with life by supernatural means
Golgi complex within cells
gollard.  wandering medieval student disposed to conviviality, license, & ribald songs
golliwog. grotesque black male doll; grotesque person
gomphosis. like tooth and its bony socket
gonadotropic. stimulating gonads
Gond. Dravidian stock
gonfalon. banner suspended from crosspiece: Italian city
Gongorism. florid, cluttered literary style
gonidium. sexually reproductive cell that separates from parental body: colonies
goniometer. crystal angles; directional radio receiver
gonian. point of the angle on either side of the lower jaw
gonopore. reproductive aperture
goosande. merganser
goose egg. zero: no points have been score
goosefoot. weedy plants
gopher ball. a pitched ball hit for a home run
gopherwood. yellowwood
gore. triangular piece of cloth
gorgorin. necking of a column
gorget. throat armor
Gorgon. Stheno, Euryale, Medusa
gorgonian. coral
gorgonize. to have a paralyzing effect
Gorgonzola. Italian cream cheese
gorp. trail mix
gorse. spiny shrubs
goshawk. large hawk
gosport. speaking tubes in old airplanes
gouache. painting with gum-based opaque water colors 
Gouda. made from skimmed milk
gourami. bright-colored aquarium fish
gourmandize. a taste for good food
gowan. yellow wildflower
goy. gentile
Graafian follicle contains maturing ovum
grabble. grope
graben. depression between two parallel faults
grace cup. final toast
Graces. Agleia, Euphrosyne, and Thalia, who dispense charm and beauty
gracile. slender, graceful
gracioso. Spanish clown or buffoon
grackle. blackish birds
gradin. one of a series of steps or tiered seats (amphitheater)
grains of paradise. cardamon seed
grama. grasses
gramarye. occult learning, magic
gramersy. expression of surprise or gratitude
gramineous. relating to grasses
graminivorous. feeding on grasses
grammatology. study of graphic script
grampus. like dolphin; or killer whale
granadilla. passion flowers
grandee.  nobleman of highest rank
grange. farmers’ association; house and outbuildings of a gentleman farmer
grangerize. to illustrate a book with illustrations from other books; to mutilate a book by stealing its illustrations
granite paper. low proportion of color-mottling fibers
granolith. paving stone of crushed granite
granophyre. fine-grained granite porphyry
granulite. granular metamorphic feldspar, quartz, and garnet
granuloma. nodules in ulcerated infections
grapheme. letter combinations that represent a single phoneme
graphitize. to convert to granite by heating
grappa. Italian brandy distilled from pressed-wine residue
graptolite. extinct marine animals
grass snipe. pectoral sandpiper
grass widow. divorced; husband temporarily absent; abandoned mistress; mother of bastard
gratin. crumbs and butter, often with grated cheese
graupel. precipitation with pellets of snow
gravamen. heaviest part of a charge
grave. to clean and coat with pitch
gravelblind. having minimal vision
gravure. printing with etched plates
grayling. fish
graving dock. ship repair dock
graywacke. shale containing dark-gray sandstone
grazier. one who grazes cattle
grazioso. gradually
greaser. Latino; macho male
greasewood. spiny shrub
great auk. large flightless sea bird
Great Pyrenees. dog
greaves. shank armor
grebe. diving birds
gree. superiority
greenbrier. cathrier
greendragon. plant
greenlet. bird
greenling fish
greenockite. cadmium ore
greenroom. offstage waiting room for performers
greensand. contains grains of glauconite
greenshank. wading bird
greensickness. chlorosis
greenstone. igneous, containing chlorite, hornblende, or epidote
gregarine. parasitic protozoa
Gregorian calendar. sponsored by Gregory XIII in 1582
Gregorian chant. Pope Gregory I, 600 AD
greisen. quartz and mica
grenadier. British Grenadier Guard, Royal Household; soldier w. grenades; fish
grenadine. flavoring syrup; thin openwork fabric
Gresham’s Law. bad money crowds out good money
gresorial.  having legs adapted for walking
graylag. graylag goose
gridiron. cooking; football; theater overhead
grifon. dog
grift. boodle; graft
grig. lively, bright person
gris-gris. African charm
griise. young salmon returning from the sea
grimalkin. cat; shrewish old woman
Grimm’s Law. tracing changes of languages into German
grisaille. painting in shades of gray
griseous. mottled or grizzled with gray
grisette. working-class girl; cheap gray fabric dress
grison. carnivorous mammals
grith. sanctuary when in church or on the king’s highway
grivet. long-tailed African monkey
groat. 4-pence piece from 1300’s to 1600’s
grog. rum and water
grogram. coarse, stiffened silk, mohair or wool
gromwell. plants
grossgrain. heavy silk or rayon, narrow horizontal ribs
gros point. large needlepoint stitch: 2 vertical and 2 horizontal
grossularite. light-green, pink or brown garnet
grot. grotto
grotty. wretched
groundling. cheaper theater seats
groundmass. fine grained porphyritic base of porphyritic rock containing phenocysts 
ground pine. club moss
ground plum. low shrub with plum-like edible fruit
ground rent.  rent for land to be used for building
groundsel. plant
ground swell. deep rolling waves caused by distant storms
growler. a small iceberg; magnetizer/demagnetizer/short circuit detector
Grub Street. world of impoverished writers and literary hacks
grum. 1. glumgrunion 2. Small fish.
Gruyere. cheese
guacharo. nocturnal bird, oil used for cooking and lighting
guaco. plants, snakebite antidote
guaiac. gualicum
gualicum. tree, lignum vitae
guaiacol. expectorant and local anesthetic
guan. like curassows
guanaco. like llama
guanethidine. treatment for hypertension
guanine.  DNA base unit
guar. legume
guaranty. collateral
guardant. animal shown on coat of arms
guard hair. on belly of animals
Guarnerius. violin
guayule. source of rubber
gudgeon. Eurasian freshwater fish
gudgeon. metal journal at the end of a shaft around which a wheel turns, socket into which a pin fits socket for the pintle of a rudder; metal pin joining 2 pieces of stone
Gidrun Nibelung king’s daughter, Sigurd’s wife
Guelph faction that supported pope and city-states against the Ghibellines
guenon long-legged African monkeys
guerdon reward, requital
guidon military pennant
guild plant (lianas, epiphytes, saprophtyes, and parasites) depending on other plants
guillemot northern black-and-white sea bird
guilloche. two or more interlaced bands giving rounded design
guimpe. gimp; short-sleeved blouse, worn with jumper; yoke insert (nuns)
guinea. 1 pound, 5 pence
guinea worm. threadlike nematode
guipure. coarse, large-patterned lace, sans net ground
gul. stylized rose motif in oriental rug
gular. pertaining to the throat
gumbo-limbo. tree
gules. red on a blazon, shown by engraved vertical lines
gumma. small tumor found in advanced stages of syphilis
gummosis. patches of gum on fruit trees resulting from severe weather or infestation
gumption. common sense
Gunnar. Sigurd’s brother-in-law, Gidrun’s brother, Brunhilde’s husband
Gunn effect. microwave oscillations when higher voltage is applied to a semiconductor
gunwale. upper edge of a ship’s side
Guoyu. Chinese mandarin
gurgitation. whirling motion, ebullition 
Gurkha. from Nepal
gurnard. flying gurnard (fish)
gurry. fish offal
gusset. triangular-shaped
gutta. small, drop-like ornaments on a Doric entablature
gutta-percha. waterproofing and electrical insulation
guttate. form of drops; spotted by drops
guttaralize pronounce gutterally, to velarize (sound w. tongue toward soft palate)
guyot. flat-topped seamount
gymkhana. athletic contests
gymnosophist. naked Hindu ascetics
gymnosperm. coniferous trees: seeds not enclosed within an ovary
gynandromorph. male and female both
gynoecium. female reproductive organs of a flower: pistils
gyplure. synthetic sex attractant for gypsy moths
gypsophelia. baby’s breath
gyro. pita bread, filled with meat (lamb), onions and tomatoes
gyrus. convolution of the brain